Javier Damián Simón is a Professor in the Department of Business Studies at the Universidad del Papaloapan. He is also co-editor of Tejiendo redes para el conocimiento multidisciplinario en educación and emprendurismo.
This translation has been automatically generated and has not been verified for accuracy.
In recent years, the subject of entrepreneurship has been on the discussion table in most countries of the world, especially because of its contribution to tackling the problem of unemployment or unemployment through self-employment in developing countries1. This is why this issue has been incorporated into educational policies through what is known as Entrepreneurship Education or Education for Entrepreneurship (EE). Thus, in addition to the four pillars for education initially proposed in the UNESCO Regional Education Project for Latin America and the Caribbean —“learning to know”, “learning to do”, “learning to live together” and “learning to be”— a fifth pillar was added, called “learning to undertake”, whose objective is to encourage new generations to use innovation and initiative in the generation of proposals that will benefit society, and there has been talk of incorporating a sixth pillar, called “learning to produce”, whose objective is to encourage individuals to develop and apply multiple capacities that contribute to the reduction of poverty and backwardness2.
Entrepreneurship programmes have undergone a number of changes in recent years. Initially, they aimed to promote for-profit ventures, i.e. they focused on identifying business opportunities and developing and implementing these opportunities through a real venture (business, micro-enterprise, etc.). Later, critics of this approach emerged, arguing that for-profit entrepreneurship programmes did not consider collective welfare and were therefore limited and selfish in scope. As a result, social entrepreneurship programmes emerged, which in the end seem to be nothing more than an illusion of non-capitalist production and market3 , since in any case such ventures are subject to supply and demand markets and their implementation is often dependent on government support programmes. Although it is said that the main objective of social entrepreneurship is not to obtain monetary benefits, that its priority is social, ethical and environmental principles, it should not be forgotten that they need these benefits in order to survive and develop. In Mexico, however, social entrepreneurship does not exist as such, according to some specialists. Most ventures are commercial or charitable ventures4.
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A conversation with David Ellerman
Rafael Martínez Puón